Micro-organisms are too small to be seen through naked eyes. However, they are a crucial part of our ecosystem in the following ways:-
1) Alcoholic fermentation by yeast is widely used in the preparation of wine and bread.
2) Microbes are helpful in reducing pollution. They act as natural decomposers by breaking these complex substances like dead plants, animals and their excreta into simpler substances, which can be absorbed by plants. Hence they play a key role in recycling of nutrients.
3) They are also used to increase the soil fertility by fixing the atmospheric nitrogen with the help of Rhizobium, Azotobacter, blue green algae etc., thus enriching the soil with nitrogen content.
4) They also play an important role in the preparation of medicines. Antibiotics are chemicals produced by micro-organisms to kill bacteria. For e.g., Streptomycin is an antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
5) Certain microbes are also used in the biological treatment of sewage and industrial effluents.
6) Bacteria present in our intestine helps in proper digestion. Gut bacteria controls diabetes, obesity, depression and colon cancer.
7) A bacterium called Lactobacillus promotes the formation of curd.
8) They are also used as preservatives for food items. For e.g., pickles
9)Processing and ageing of cheese is carried out by microorganisms.
10) Spirulina is a type of cyanobacteria which is extremely high in many nutrients. It is available in capsules, tablets, and powder and has been incorporated in certain foods and beverages such as energy bars etc