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(a) Polished wooden table

(b) Chalk powder

(c) Cardboard surface

(d) Marble floor with water spread over it

(e) Mirror

(f) Piece of paper

Answer :

**(a) Polished wooden table - Regular reflection**

A polished surface is an example of a smooth surface, so a polished wooden table has a smooth surface. Hence, reflections from a smooth surface will be regular.

**(b) Chalk powder - Diffused reflection**

Chalk power spread on a surface is an example of an irregular surface. As the surface is not smooth, therefore diffused reflection will take place from chalk powder.

**(c) Cardboard surface - Diffused reflection **

Cardboard surface is also an example of an irregular surface. Hence, diffused reflection will take place from a cardboard surface.

**(d) Marble floor with water spread over it - Regular reflection **

Marble floor with water spread over it is an example of smooth surface. This is because water makes the marble surface more smooth. Hence, regular reflection will take place from this surface.

**(e) Mirror - Regular reflection **

Mirror has a smooth surface. Hence, regular reflection will take place from this surface.

**(f) Piece of paper - Diffused reflection **

Though a piece of paper looks smooth, but it has many minute irregularities on its surface. Due to this diffused reflection will take place from this surface.

- Q.1 Suppose you are in a dark room. Can you see objects in the room? Can you see objects out¬side the room ?
- Q.2 Differentiate between regular and diffused reflection. Does diffused reflection mean the failure of the laws of reflection?
- Q.4 State the laws of reflection.
- Q.5 Describe an activity to show that the incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence lie in the same plane.
- Q.6 Fill in the blanks in the following. (a) A person 1 m in front of a plane mirror seems to be ______ m away from his image. (b) If you touch your ______ ear with a right hand in front of a plane mirror it will be seen in the mirror that your right ear is touched with _____ (c) The size of the pupil becomes _______ when you see in dim light. (d) Night birds have _______ cones than rods in their eyes.
- Q.7 The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection (a) Always (b) Sometimes (c) Under special conditions (d) Never
- Q.8 Image formed by a plane mirror is: (a) virtual, behind the mirror and enlarged. (b) virtual, behind the mirror and of the same size as the object. (c) real at the surface of the mirror and enlarged. (d) real, behind the mirror and of the same size as the object.
- Q.9 Describe the construction of a kaleidoscope.
- Q.10 Draw a labelled sketch of the human eye.
- Q.11 Gurmit wanted to perform Activity 16.8 using a laser torch. Her teacher advised her not to do so. Can you explain the basis of the teacher’s advise?
- Q.12 Explain how you can take care of your eyes.
- Q.13 What is the angle of incidence of a ray if the reflected ray is at an angle of 90° to the incident ray?
- Q.14 How many images of a candle will be formed if it is placed between two parallel plane mirrors separated by 40 cm?
- Q.15 Two mirrors meet at right angles. A ray of light is incident on one at an angle of 30° as shown in Fig. 16.19. Draw the reflected ray from the second mirror.
- Q.16 Boojho stands at A just on the side of a plane mirror as shown in Fig. Can he see himself in the mirror? Also can he see the image of objects situated at P, Q and R?
- Q.17 (a) Find out the position of the image of an object situated at A in the plane mirror (Fig. 16.23). (b) Can Paheli at B see this image? (c) Can Boojho at C see this image? (d) When Paheli moves from B to C, where does the image of A move?

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