The various modes of asexual reproduction in plants are as follows :
(i) Vegetative propagation : It is the ability of a plant to produce new plants from roots, stems, leaves, and buds. Vegetative propagation is divided into two types:
(a) Natural vegetative propagation : This type of vegetative propagation occurs easily in nature and involves simple vegetative parts. Potato plant sprouting from an eye is a common example.
(b) Artificial vegetative propagation : This type of vegetative propagation is performed manually and generally occurs in laboratory conditions. The formation of a complete plant from a stem cutting of a rose is a common example of this method.
(ii) Budding : It involves the formation of a new individual from a bulb-like projection called a bud. The bud grows and gets detached from the parent to form a new individual. It is commonly observed in yeast.
(iii) Fragmentation : It is a form of asexual reproduction where a new organism is formed from the fragments of the parent body. It is the only mode of asexual reproduction in Spirogyra.
(iv) Spore formation : Many non-flowering plants reproduce through spore formation. Spores are tiny cells protected by a thick wall. Fungi such as bread molds reproduce asexually using this method.