(1) The outer layer or the uppermost layer of the earth is formed of soil. The soil is a mixture that contains minerals, organic matter, and living organisms all of which interact slowly yet constantly.
(2) Soil is formed through the process of weathering. Weathering is a process of physical breakdown and chemical decomposition of rocks and minerals near or at the surface of the earth. .
(3) Rock is broken down into small particles. These small particles mix with humus (organic matter) and form soil.
(4) This physical and chemical decomposition is primarily done by wind, water, and climate. As a result of these processes, large rock pieces are converted into smaller pieces and eventually to the soil.