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7. Define valency by taking examples of silicon and oxygen.
Answer :

The definite combining capacity of the atoms of each element is valency.

Example : To find the valency of silicon:

The atomic number of silicon is 14

Number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in silicon i.e., 14

The distribution of electrons in silicon atom is K – 2, L – 8, M – 4

Hence, from the distribution of silicon it is clearly evident that to fill the M shell 4 electrons are required. Therefore its valency is 8-4=4.

To find the valency of oxygen:

The atomic number of oxygen is 8

Number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in oxygen i.e., 8

The distribution of electrons in oxygen atom is K – 2, L – 6

Hence, from the distribution of oxygen it is clearly evident that to fill the M shell 6 more electrons are required. Therefore its valency is 8-6=2.