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(i) \(px + py = p - q\)

\(qx –py = p + q\)

(ii) \(ax + by = c\)

\( bx + ay = 1 + c\)

(iii) \({{x}\over{a}} - {{y}\over{b}} = 0\)

\(ax + by = a ^2 + b^2\)

(iv) \((a - b)x + (a + b)y = a^2 -2ab - b^2\)

\( (a + b)(x + y) = a^2 + b^2\)

(v) \(152x - 378y = -74\)

\( -378x + 152y = -604\)

Answer :

(i)\(px + py = p - q\) … (1)

\(qx –py = p + q\)… (2)

Multiplying equation (1) by p and equation (2) by q:

\(p^2 x + pqy = p^2 - pq\)… (3)
\(q^2 x - pqy = pq + q^2\)… (4)

Adding equations (3) and (4), :

=>\(p^2 x + q^2 x = p^2 + q^2\)

=>\((p^2 + q^2)x = p^2 + q^2\)

=> x = \({{p^x + q^x} \over {p^2 + q^2}}\)= 1

Substituting the value of in equation (1):

\(p(1) + qy = p - q \)

=>\(qy = -q => y = -1\)

Hence the required solution is x = 1 and y = –1.

**(ii)**\(ax + by = c\)… (1)

\( bx + ay = 1 + c\) … (2)

Multiplying equation (1) by a and equation (2) by b:

\(a^2x + aby = ac\)… (3)

\(b^2x + aby = b + bc\) … (4)

Subtracting equation (4) from equation (3),

\((a^2 - b^2)x = ac - bc -b\)

=>\(x = {{c(a - b) - b} \over {a^2 - b^2}} \)

Substituting the value of x in equation (1):

\(a ({{c(a - b) - b} \over {a^2 - b^2}}) + by = c\)

=>\({{ac(a - b) - ab} \over {a^2 - b^2}} + by = c\)

=>\( by = c -{{ac(a - b) - ab} \over {a^2 - b^2}}\)

=>\(by = {{a^2c - b^2c - a^2c + abc + ab} \over {a^2 - b^2}}\)

=> \(by = {{ abc - b^2 c+ ab} \over {a^2 - b^2}}\)

=>\(y = {{ c(a - b)+ a} \over {a^2 - b^2}}\)

**(iii)**\({{x}\over{a}} - {{y}\over{b}} = 0\)

=>\(bx - ay = 0\)……..(1)

=>\(ax + by = a^2 - b^2\)……..(2)

Multiplying equation (1) and (2) by b and a respectively:

=> \(xb^2 - aby = 0\)……..(3)

=> \(xa^2 + aby = a^3 - ab^2\)……..(4)

Adding equations (3) and (4), we obtain:

\(xb^2 + xa^2 = a^3 + ab^2\)

=>\( x(b^2 + a^2) = a (b^2 + a^2) \)

=> \(x = a\)

Substituting the value of in equation (1):

\(b(a) - ay = 0\)

=>\(ab - ay = 0\)

=> \(y = b\)

**(iv)** \((a - b)x + (a + b)y = a^2 -2ab - b^2\) … (1)

\( (a + b)(x + y) = a^2 + b^2\)……..(2)

Subtracting equation (2) from (1):

\((a - b)x - (a + b)x = (a^2 - 2ab - b^2) - ( a^2 + b^2)\)

=>\((a - b - a - b)x = -2ab - 2b^2\)

=>\( -2bx = -2b(a + b)\)

=> \(x = a + b\)

Substituting the value of in equation (1):

\((a - b)(a + b) + (a + b)y = a^2 -2ab - b^2\)

=>\(a^2 - b^2 + (a + b)y = a^2 -2ab - b^2\)

=>\((a + b)y = -2ab\)

=>\(y = {{-2ab} \over {a + b}}\)

**(v)**\(152x – 378y = –74\)… (1)

\(–378x + 152y = –604\) … (2)

Adding the equations (1) and (2):

\(–226x – 226y = –678\)

\(=> x + y = 3\) ………(3)

Subtracting the equation (2) from equation (1):

\(530x – 530y = 530\)

\(=> x – y = 1\) ……..(4)

Adding equations (3) and (4):

\(2x = 4\)

\(=> x = 2\)

Substituting the value of x in equation (3):

\(y = 1\)

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