Q.5 Answer in brief.
(a) Why should we conserve biodiversity?
(b) Protected forests are also not completely safe for wild animals. Why?
(c) Some tribals depend on the jungle. How?
(d) What are the causes and consequences of deforestation?
(e) What is Red Data Book?
(f) What do you understand by the term migration?

Answer :

(a) Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life forms such as plants, animals, and micro-organisms present in an area. Each and every organism depend upon one another for their survival. This means that the extinction of any organism will adversely affect the life of the other organism. Hence, we need to conserve biodiversity to maintain the ecological balance thus leading to the formation of a stable ecosystem.

(b) Protected forests are not completely safe for wild animals because people who live near by the forests or the people who are involved in illegal works, use these resources from forests to fulfil their own requirements. In this process, even the wild animals are killed to extract hide, ivory, fur, organs, skin, bones or teeth which can help them to earn a lucrative amount of money.

(c) The forests provide food, fodder and other resources to the tribal people which is helpful for them as well as for their cattle. Thus it is inevitable for them to depend on forests and their resources for everyday needs.

(d) The causes of deforestation are :

(i) Forests are cleared for accommodating the expanding urban areas and for fulfilling their ever-increasing requirements.
(ii) Forests are destroyed for implementing agriculture to feed the growing population and a place for animal husbandry that provides dairy products, egg, fish, meat etc.
(iii) Trees that are cut down, are used for as firewood by the tribal people living nearby the forest areas.

The consequences of deforestation are :

(i) Soil erosion.
(ii) Loss of biodiversity causing ecological imbalance.
(iii) Floods and droughts.
(iv) Sudden climate alterations due to increase of global warming
(v) Disruption of water cycle, thus reducing rainfall.

(e) Red Data Book is a state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants, and fungi, as well as some local subspecies that exist within the territory. The Red Data Book contains the complete list of threatened species.

(f) Migration means the movement of a species from its own habitat to some other place during a certain period in a year for breeding or to overcome unfavourable climatic conditions.

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